O envelhecimento Cutâneo

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Dr. Tiago Garcia Mercurio - Cientista e Coordenador na área de Pesquisa & Desenvolvimento de Formulações Alternativas para doenças crônicas e estéticas com ênfase em Sistema Tegumentar “Pele” e Obesidade, pela Faculdade e Centro de Referência de Iguatama-Mg.

O envelhecimento cutâneo pode ser dividido ou classificado de duas formas: intrínseco (também conhecido como pré-ordenado) ou extrínseco (também conhecido como cumulativo). O envelhecimento intrínseco é dependente das variações genéticas individuais, já o extrínseco é decorrente de danos cumulativos vindos do ambiente e que afetam genes e proteínas. Assim, podemos considerar o envelhecimento como um processo de interação entre programa genético do indivíduo e o meio ambiente, ao longo da vida.

Envelhecimento Intrínseco
O envelhecimento cutâneo intrínseco é caracterizado por ressecamento, flacidez, rugas finas e atrofia da pele. Na comunidade científica, muito se fala sobre a influência dos telômeros neste tipo de envelhecimento (intrínseco). Sabe-se que os telômeros se localizam ao final dos cromossomos de células eucariotas, e que a cada divisão celular, há uma redução de seu tamanho, podendo levar a senescência ou apoptose celular até que se interrompa o ciclo de divisão celular.

Relacionando aspectos alimentares à teoria de envelhecimento intrínseco, Cassidy e colaboradores (2010) concluíram um estudo que sugere interseção entre a composição corporal, fatores da dieta e o comprimento do telômero. Neste estudo foi demonstrado que quanto maior o consumo de fibras, maior o comprimento dos telômeros e menor a circunferência da cintura. Em 2009, Xu e colaboradores conduziram o primeiro estudo epidemiológico, nos Estados Unidos, mostrando a relação entre o uso de multivitamínicos e o tamanho dos telômeros. Concluiu-se que mulheres que utilizavam multivitamínicos apresentavam telômeros mais longos do que as que não utilizavam.

do telômero. Neste estudo foi demonstrado que quanto maior o consumo de fibras, maior o comprimento dos telômeros e menor a circunferência da cintura. Em 2009, Xu e colaboradores conduziram o primeiro estudo epidemiológico, nos Estados Unidos, mostrando a relação entre o uso de multivitamínicos e o tamanho dos telômeros. Concluiu-se que mulheres que utilizavam multivitamínicos apresentavam telômeros mais longos do que as que não utilizavam.

Envelhecimento Extrínseco
Como já mencionado, o envelhecimento extrínseco relaciona-se a fatores ambientais, tais como poluição, fumaça, consumo excessivo de álcool, deficiência nutricional e exposição solar crônica. Considera-se a exposição a estes fatores possível de ser evitada, entretanto, quando há um descuido de proteção, ocorre o conhecido envelhecimento cutâneo prematuro. Dos fatores citados, a exposição solar é considerada a mais deletéria para a pele, podendo caracterizar, então, um quadro de fotoenvelhecimento.

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